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Abies balsamea
BALSAM FIR
  • Grows in a pyramidal, open habit
  • Needles are emerald-green
  • One of the most aromatic of all firs

HEIGHT: 18-20 m  ·  SPREAD: 6-8 m

Acer pensylvanicum
STRIPED MAPLE
  • Small, rounded, irregular crown
  • Yellow-green bell-shaped flowers appear in long hanging clusters
  • Three-lobed leaves emerge with pink hues in the spring

HEIGHT: 7-8 m  ·  SPREAD: 6-7 m

Acer rubrum
RED MAPLE
  • Small to medium-sized broad-leaved hardwood
  • Crown is small, dense and narrow with spreading or ascending branches
  • Flowers appear in bright red clusters

HEIGHT: 12-15 m  ·  SPREAD: 10-12 m

Acer saccharinum
SILVER MAPLE
  • Fast-growing, tall, with a rounded, open, spreading crown
  • Small yellow flowers appear in clusters before the foliage
  • Deeply lobed light green leaves have silvery undersides

HEIGHT: 18-20 m  ·  SPREAD: 15-18 m

Acer saccharum
SUGAR MAPLE
  • Upright growing, with a dense rounded crown
  • Insignificant flowers appear just before the leaves
  • Fruit (samaras in pairs) ripen early fall

HEIGHT: 25-30 m  ·  SPREAD: 15-18 m

Achillea millefolium
COMMON YARROW
  • Flat-topped clusters of white flowers
  • Seeds ripen July to September
  • Foliage is mid-green and fine-textured

HEIGHT: 45-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Acorus americanus
SWEET FLAG
  • Hardy perennial, swamp or bog plant
  • Foliage and rhizomes have a sweet citrus scent when bruised or cut
  • Wheat-like flowers

HEIGHT: 60-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 70-90 cm

Actaea pachypoda
WHITE BANEBERRY
  • Jagged green leaves on strong, reddish stems
  • Clusters of fragrant white flowers
  • After flowering, tiny white berries appear

HEIGHT: 60-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-90 cm

Actaea rubra
RED BANEBERRY
  • Lightly scented delicate white flowers
  • Fine-textured foliage with an airy habit
  • After flowering, red berry clusters appear

HEIGHT: 60-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Adiantum pedatum
NORTHERN MAIDENHAIR FERN
  • Delicate bright green fronds with black-purple stems
  • Spreads by shallow rhizomes to form a dense ground cover
  • Slower growing fern, taking 2-3 years to reach mature size

HEIGHT: 30-50 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-50 cm

Aesculus glabra
OHIO BUCKEYE
  • Low branched, broad, oval, rounded crown
  • Green compound leaves emerge in the spring, each with seven spreading oblong leaflets
  • Clusters of single, green-white-yellow flowers

HEIGHT: 10-12 m  ·  SPREAD: 9-10 m

Agastache foeniculum
ANISE HYSSOP
  • AKA Agastache anethiodora, Agastache anisata
  • Tall, upright, clumping perennial
  • Dense spikes of lavender-purple flowers with violet bracts

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 70-90 cm

Agastache scrophulariaefolia
PURPLE GIANT HYSSOP
  • Strong, tall central stems
  • Blooms are pale purple and open slowly over a period of weeks
  • They are nectar-rich makes them highly attractive to pollinators

HEIGHT: 125-175 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Allium cernuum
NODDING ONION
  • A bulb that produces grass-like leaves
  • Flowers are commonly pink and sometimes white
  • Flowers mature into fruit opening to show glossy dark seeds

HEIGHT: 45-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 25-30 cm

Allium schoenoprasum
WILD CHIVES
  • Other common names; chive, chive garlic, rush leeks,
  • Purple-pink balls of star-like flower clusters
  • Both leaves and flowers are edible

HEIGHT: 30-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-60 cm

Alnus rugosa
SPECKLED ALDER
  • Pyramidal to oval growth habit
  • Noted for its speckled bark
  • Oval to rounded leaves, margins uneven and double-toothed

HEIGHT: 13-15 m  ·  SPREAD: 8-10 m

Amelanchier canadensis
SERVICEBERRY
  • White flowers
  • Grayish-green round leaves turn to medium-green in the summer
  • Brilliant yellow to red colour in the fall

HEIGHT: 5-6 m  ·  SPREAD: 3-4 m

Amelanchier humilis
LOW SHADBUSH
  • White flowers are held in erect clusters
  • Oval to rounded green foliage
  • Brilliant yellow to red foliage in the fall

HEIGHT: 150-175 cm  ·  SPREAD: 250-300 cm

Amelanchier laevis
ALLEGHENY SERVICEBERRY
  • Lightly fragrant drooping clusters of white flowers appear before the foliage
  • Edible red berries ripen to dark purplish-black in June
  • Glossy leaves emerge bronzish-purple, maturing to dark green

HEIGHT: 4-5 m  ·  SPREAD: 4-5 m

Ammophila breviligulata
AMERICAN BEACH GRASS
  • Long, narrow, soft-textured golden-tan flower spikes
  • Gray-green leaf blades are narrow, with extremely sharp tips
  • This is a great low-maintenance grass for erosion control

HEIGHT: 60-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-125 cm

Amorpha canescens
LEAD PLANT
  • Woody perennial
  • Tiny bluish-purple flower spikes with gold anthers
  • Pinnately compound grayish-green leaflets

HEIGHT: 60-80 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-80 cm

Anaphalis margaritacea
PEARLY EVERLASTING
  • Small white button-like flowers with yellow centres
  • Forms a bushy mound of hairy silver-gray foliage
  • Often found along roadsides and in disturbed areas

HEIGHT: 60-80 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-60 cm

Andropogon gerardii
BIG BLUE STEM
  • Dense, slightly arching clump of blue-green leaves
  • Leaves turn a bronze-red in the fall and colour remains through the winter months
  • Three-pronged burgundy-purple seed heads are held on sturdy stems

HEIGHT: 150-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-100 cm

Andropogon virginicus
BROOM SEDGE
  • Narrow clumps of green stems and leaves turn purplish-red
  • Fall colour is a bright orange changing to straw-yellow in the winter
  • Prolific seed producer with high germination rates

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-60 cm

Anemone canadensis
CANADA ANEMONE
  • Other common names: Windflower, Meadow anemone
  • Single layered white blooms with yellow centres
  • A robust perennial with deeply lobed green foliage

HEIGHT: 30-50 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-50 cm

Anemone cylindrica
WINDFLOWER
  • Upright slender habit and clumping form
  • Deeply lobed green, basal leaves
  • Greenish-white blooms produce thimble-shaped seed heads

HEIGHT: 30-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 70-150 cm

Anemonella thalictroides
RUE ANEMONE
  • AKA Thalictrum thalictroides, Syndesmon thalictroides
  • Reddish stems and foliage emerge in late March
  • Small dainty pale pink to white flowers with yellow-green centres rise just above the foliage

HEIGHT: 15-20 cm  ·  SPREAD: 15-20 cm

Aquilegia canadensis
WILD COLUMBINE
  • Showy, nodding, bell-shaped flowers of pinkish-red and yellow
  • Attractive divided light green foliage
  • Naturalizing plant for rocky ledges or slopes and along woodland edges or ditches

HEIGHT: 40-50 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-40 cm

Arctanthemum arcticum
ARCTIC DAISY
  • AKA Chrysanthemum arcticum
  • Florets are white, often tinged pink with a yellow centre
  • Suitable for rock gardens or borders

HEIGHT: 30-40 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-50 cm

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
BEARBERRY
  • AKA Arbutus uva-ursi
  • Other Common Names: Pine Mat, Mealberry, Hog Cranberry, Sandberry
  • Evergreen ground cover with small white, pink-edged bell-shaped flowers

HEIGHT: 10-15 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-150 cm

Arisaema triphyllum
JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT
  • AKA Arisaema atrorubens
  • Unique upright club-shaped spadix with hoods of green and maroon
  • Attractive maroon stems

HEIGHT: 30-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-30 cm

Aronia arbutifolia 'Brilliantissima'
RED CHOKEBERRY
  • Fragrant white flowers
  • Glossy red berries persist for a long period
  • Lustrous green foliage turns to an outstanding red in the fall

HEIGHT: 175-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 125-150 cm

Aronia melanocarpa
BLACK CHOKEBERRY
  • Fragrant white flowers
  • Glossy purple-black berries persist for a long period
  • Shiny green foliage turns to an outstanding red in the fall

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 80-100 cm

Artemisia ludoviciana
SILVER SAGEBRUSH
  • Fragrant silver foliage turning slightly pink to orange in the fall
  • Tiny silvery-white flower buds open to yellow
  • Excellent for erosion control on slopes and in ditches

HEIGHT: 60-75 cm  ·  SPREAD: 90-100 cm

Artichoke
JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE
  • Helianthus tuberosus
  • Yellow flowers are yellow rays with a yellow-orange disc in the centre
  • Leaves are long and wide tapering to a point at the tip

HEIGHT: 1-3 m  ·  SPREAD: 15-25 cm

Asarum canadense
WILD GINGER
  • Deep red to brown flowers
  • Flowers are hidden under velvety dark green heart-shaped foliage
  • Native to the Ontario woodlands

HEIGHT: 20-30 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-50 cm

Asclepias incarnata
SWAMP MILKWEED
  • Pink flowers are followed by attractive seed pods
  • Food source for Monarch butterflies
  • Commonly found in swamps or wetland landscapes

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-90 cm

Asclepias syriaca
COMMON MILKWEED
  • Pinkish-purple flowers
  • Attractive seed pods remain when flowers finish
  • Naturally found in open fields and along roadsides

HEIGHT: 80-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-40 cm

Asclepias tuberosa
BUTTERFLY MILKWEED
  • Round clusters of orange flowers
  • Attractive seed heads appear when flowers finish
  • Food source for Monarch butterflies

HEIGHT: 30-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-50 cm

Asclepias verticillata
WHORLED MILKWEED
  • Narrow whorled green foliage
  • Sweet-scented, greenish-white flowers
  • Thin seed pods are left when flowers finish

HEIGHT: 30-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-30 cm

Asimina triloba
PAWPAW
  • Small low branching tree, forming a dense pyramidal rounded crown
  • Cup-shaped purple flowers
  • Large, slightly drooping, elliptical green leaves

HEIGHT: 6-8 m  ·  SPREAD: 5-6 m

Asplenium scolopendrium
HART'S TONGUE FERN
  • AKA Phyllitis scolopendrium, Scolopendrium vulgare
  • Low, upward-growing clumps of glossy, narrow, strap-like, leathery foliage
  • Edges are often wavy

HEIGHT: 30-40 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-45 cm

Aster alpinus var. vierhapperi
ALPINE ASTER
  • AKA Aster culminis
  • Low-growing ground cover with green foliage
  • Pale to dark purple flowers

HEIGHT: 20-25 cm  ·  SPREAD: 25-30 cm

Aster cordifolius
HEART-LEAVED ASTER
  • AKA Symphyotrichum cordifolium
  • Light blue to purple daisy-like blooms
  • The centre florets are initially cream, maturing to a reddish-purple

HEIGHT: 50-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-80 cm

Aster divaricatus
WHITE WOOD ASTER
  • AKA Eurybia divaricata
  • Forms a low mound of green foliage
  • Masses of small, white, daisy-like flowers for appear on shiny black stems

HEIGHT: 30-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-50 cm

Aster ericoides
HEATH ASTER
  • AKA Symphyotrichum ericoides
  • Numerous small white daisy-like florets with yellow centres
  • Hairy green stems turn brown as the plant matures

HEIGHT: 30-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-50 cm

Aster laevis
SMOOTH ASTER
  • AKA Symphyotrichum laeve
  • Extremely hardy
  • Lavender to light blue flowers appear on hairless stems

HEIGHT: 60-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-60 cm

Aster novae-angliae
NEW ENGLAND ASTER
  • AKA Symphyotrichum novae-angliae
  • Large, rose-purple flowers, consisting of numerous rays around a yellow centre
  • Upright habit with narrow, hairy, green leaves, up to 10 cm long

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Aster oolentangiensis
SKY BLUE ASTER
  • AKA Aster azureus or Symphyotrichum oolentangiense
  • Flowers are made up of petals in varying shades of blue surrounding a yellow eye
  • Naturally found in Southern Ontario in dry meadows, edges and open woods

HEIGHT: 60-80 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-60 cm

Aster puniceus
SWAMP ASTER
  • AKA Symphyotrichum puniceum
  • Flowers are usually pale blue, but can vary to deep blue or purple
  • Stems are reddish-purple and usually hairy

HEIGHT: 90-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-40 cm

Aster shortii
SHORT'S ASTER
  • AKA Symphyotrichum Shortii
  • Blue-violet petals surrounding a yellow eye
  • The centres start out yellow but turn red after pollination

HEIGHT: 80-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 75-80 cm

Aster umbellatus
FLAT-TOPPED ASTER, PARASOL WHITETOP
  • AKA Doellingeria umbellata
  • Flat-topped cluster of small, white flowers
  • Flowers appear earlier than most aster

HEIGHT: 100-175 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-50 cm

Athyrium filix-femina
LADY FERN
  • Bright green fronds
  • Upright, clumping habit
  • Long-lived and easy to grow

HEIGHT: 60-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-80 cm

Betula alleghaniensis
YELLOW BIRCH
  • AKA Betula lutea
  • Upright, pyramidal habit with graceful, ascending branches
  • Bark is shiny, yellowish or silvery-gray, becoming reddish-brown with age

HEIGHT: 20-22 m  ·  SPREAD: 12-15 m

Betula papyrifera
PAPER BIRCH
  • Upright to oval, rounded crown
  • White bark exfoliates in papery strips
  • Mature trees develop black markings on the white bark

HEIGHT: 13-16 m  ·  SPREAD: 10-12 m

Bouteloua curtipendula
SIDE OATS GRAMA
  • AKA Bouteloua racemosa
  • Dense, slightly arching, light green blades mature gold, and sometimes red
  • Purplish flowers

HEIGHT: 40-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Bouteloua gracilis
BLUE GRAMA
  • AKA Bouteloua oligostachya
  • Dense, slightly arching grey-green blades mature purple, then light brown
  • Purplish flowers

HEIGHT: 50-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 25-30 cm

Bromus kalmii
PRAIRIE BROME
  • Clumps of dark green stems holding either arching leaves or seeds
  • Seed stems produce silvery pendulous seeds late spring
  • Bloom Time: June to August

HEIGHT: 30-80 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-60 cm

Calamagrostis canadensis
CANADA BLUEJOINT
  • This grass has a slightly arching upright habit
  • Spreads more quickly than other calamagrostis species
  • Leaves are rough with tiny hairs and bluish-green in colour

HEIGHT: 100-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 80-120 cm

Calamagrostis stricta
NEGLECTED REED GRASS
  • AKA Calamagrostis neglecta
  • Loose, open panicles
  • Forms a dense mat

HEIGHT: 60-120 cm  ·  SPREAD: 80-120 cm

Caltha palustris
MARSH MARIGOLD
  • AKA Caltha polypetala
  • Numerous, waxy, yellow, buttercup-like flowers
  • Kidney-shaped, glossy, dark green leaves, up to 10 cm long, form low mounds

HEIGHT: 30-40 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-40 cm

Campanula americana
TALL BELLFLOWER
  • AKA Campanulastrum americanum
  • Flat, star-shaped, five-lobed blue flowers with a white inner circle
  • Heart-shaped dark green hairy scalloped leaves

HEIGHT: 90-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-50 cm

Campanula rotundifolia
HAREBELL
  • Dainty, bell-like, light blue flowers held upright stems
  • Buds are upright but flowers nod when open
  • Heart-shaped, fine-toothed, basal, green leaves form low clumps

HEIGHT: 30-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-45 cm

Campsis radicans
TRUMPET VINE
  • AKA Bignonia radicans
  • Terminal clusters of waxy, trumpet-shaped, red-orange flowers
  • Long, bean-like, seed pods, 15 cm long, open when ripe

HEIGHT: 7-12 m  ·  SPREAD: 1-3 m

Carex appalachica
APPALACHIAN SEDGE
  • Forming dense clumps of narrow grass-like arching blades
  • Green foliage
  • Small, mostly inconspicuous flowers, are showy for a short time

HEIGHT: 15-20 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-45 cm

Carex bebbii
BEBB'S SEDGE
  • Clump-forming sedge with a cascading appearance
  • Green leaves, 6 mm wide, are triangular in cross section
  • Seed heads are decorative

HEIGHT: 60-80 cm  ·  SPREAD: 5-10 cm

Carex comosa
BRISTLY SEDGE
  • Tuft-forming sedge with an upright, cascading habit
  • Leaves are green, about 6 mm wide, triangular in cross sections
  • Seed heads droop downward, in clumps of 2-6 spikelets, up to 8 cm long, May through July

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Carex crinita
FRINGED SEDGE
  • Tuft-forming sedge with an upright, cascading habit
  • Strap-like leaves are green, about 12 mm wide, triangular in cross section
  • Bristly flower spikelets top this plant

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-125 cm

Carex eburnea
BRISTLE-LEAF SEDGE
  • Forms a small rounded clump of soft green thread-like foliage
  • Insignificant white-green flowers
  • Bloom Time: Spring

HEIGHT: 15-20 cm  ·  SPREAD: 15-20 cm

Carex grayi
MORNING STAR SEDGE
  • Forms a slightly arching tight upright clump
  • Semi-evergreen leaf blades are 15 mm wide
  • Flower spikes are followed by unique light green star or mace-shaped seed pods

HEIGHT: 60-80 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Carex hystericina
PORCUPINE SEDGE
  • Tuft-forming sedge with an upright, cascading habit
  • Leaves are green, about 6 mm wide, triangular in cross section
  • Prickly cylindrical spikelets

HEIGHT: 60-80 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Carex lacustris
HAIRY SEDGE
  • A.K.A Carex riparia
  • Large upright grass with leaves and seeds growing off the same stem
  • Stems are bluish-green, triangular in cross section

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Carex muskingumensis
PALM SEDGE GRASS
  • Semi-upright clump-forming sedge with a cascading look
  • Bright green foliage and divided leaves provide a tropical appearance
  • Small golden-brown flowers

HEIGHT: 60-75 cm  ·  SPREAD: 45-60 cm

Carex pensylvanica
OAK SEDGE
  • Small clump-forming sedge with a mounding, cascading habit
  • Bright green foliage
  • Small inconspicuous flowers are showy for a short time

HEIGHT: 20-30 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-45 cm

Carex plantaginea
PLANTAIN-LEAVED SEDGE
  • Semi-evergreen clump-forming sedge with a mounding habit
  • Unusually wide puckered leaves, 25 mm, are mostly green but purplish at the base
  • Leaves are rippled and dimpled along the midribs

HEIGHT: 20-25 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-40 cm

Carex platyphylla
SILVER SEDGE
  • Upright mounding sedge with inconspicuous seed heads
  • Frosty blue semi-evergreen leaves are up to 25 mm wide
  • Small green seed heads change to brown in the summer

HEIGHT: 20-50 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-40 cm

Carex pseudocyperus
CYPRESS SEDGE
  • Tuft-forming grass with an upright, cascading habit
  • Leaves are yellow-green, about 6 mm wide and triangular in cross section
  • Spikes of tiny green or brown flowers

HEIGHT: 60-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Carex rosea
ROSY SEDGE
  • Thick clumps of delicate, arching foliage
  • Deep green narrow leaves
  • Produces unique star-like seed clusters

HEIGHT: 20-30 cm  ·  SPREAD: 5-10 cm

Carex stipata
AWL FRUITED SEDGE
  • Tuft-forming sedge with an upright, cascading habit
  • Leaves are green, about 6 mm wide, triangular in cross section
  • Brownish-green flower heads look like bushy foxtails

HEIGHT: 90-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Carex stricta
TUSSOCK SEDGE
  • AKA Carex elata
  • Slender upright sedge with leaves and seeds growing off the same stems
  • Stems are bluish-green, triangular in cross section

HEIGHT: 60-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-50 cm

Carex vulpinoidea
FOX SEDGE
  • Slender, upright, slightly arching sedge common to Ontario's wetlands
  • Stems are bluish-green, triangular in cross-section
  • Seed heads, at same height as the leaves, resemble a fox's tail

HEIGHT: 50-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-50 cm

Carpinus caroliniana
BLUE BEECH/MUSCLEWOOD
  • Rounded to oval crown with wide spreading branches
  • Attractive yellow or green catkins
  • Catkins turn into distinctive clusters of winged nutlets

HEIGHT: 8-10 m  ·  SPREAD: 8-10 m

Carya cordiformis
BITTERNUT HICKORY
  • Open, broadly columnar with an irregular oval to rounded crown
  • Distinctive sulphur-yellow buds
  • Male and female flowers

HEIGHT: 15-20 m  ·  SPREAD: 14-15 m

Carya glabra
PIGNUT HICKORY
  • Open, rounded crown
  • Yellowish-green, non-showy flowers
  • Male and female flowers

HEIGHT: 14-16 m  ·  SPREAD: 8-9 m

Carya ovata
SHAGBARK HICKORY
  • Irregular, oval, rounded, growth habit
  • The bark of mature trees is dark gray to brown and exfoliates in long strips
  • Long, narrow, pointed, compound leaves are dark green and glossy

HEIGHT: 22-25 m  ·  SPREAD: 15-17 m

Caulophyllum thalictroides
BLUE COHOSH
  • Insignificant yellowish-green flowers
  • Flowers finish and leave behind berry-like seeds
  • As the seeds age, they take on a blue colour

HEIGHT: 45-70 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Ceanothus americanus
NEW JERSEY TEA
  • Clusters of tiny fragrant white flowers
  • Medium to dark green leaves are gray and hairy on the undersides
  • New twigs are yellow and provide winter interest

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-125 cm

Celastrus scandens 'Diane'
FEMALE AMERICAN BITTERSWEET
  • Insignificant small greenish-yellow flowers
  • Spherical berries are green when young and ripen to yellow in the fall
  • Berries split open to reveal an orange-red seed surrounded by a yellow skin

HEIGHT: 10-15 m  ·  SPREAD: 6-8 m

Celastrus scandens 'Hercules'
MALE AMERICAN BITTERSWEET
  • Insignificant small greenish-yellow flowers
  • Toothed, mid-green, ovate leaves are 10 cm long
  • Leaves turn a vibrant yellow in the fall

HEIGHT: 10-15 m  ·  SPREAD: 6-8 m

Celtis occidentalis
COMMON HACKBERRY
  • Upright, arching branches with a rounded, spreading crown
  • Bark develops corky ridges, tan when young, turning gray at maturity
  • Simple ovate leaves, with serrated margins, are light green in the summer

HEIGHT: 15-18 m  ·  SPREAD: 14-16 m

Cephalanthus occidentalis
BUTTONBUSH
  • Spherical clusters of white florets
  • Green nutlets turn brown in the fall and persist into the winter
  • Glossy foliage emerges in late spring

HEIGHT: 175-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 175-200 cm

Cercis canadensis
EASTERN REDBUD
  • Sweet-pea-like red-pink flowers bloom profusely on bare branches and even on mature trunks
  • Fruit pods are brown and flat, about 5 cm long
  • Heart-shaped green leaves turn an attractive yellow in the fall

HEIGHT: 8-10 m  ·  SPREAD: 7-8 m

Chelone glabra
TURTLEHEAD
  • AKA Chelone oblique 'Alba'
  • Predominantly white flowers are sometimes tinged with pink
  • Flowers are hooded and look similar to snapdragons

HEIGHT: 60-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-50 cm

Chrysopsis villosa
GOLDEN ASTER
  • AKA Heterotheca villosa
  • Yellow, daisy-like flowers, with 10-25 petals per flower
  • Hairy, gray leaves are oblong, occasionally toothed, usually smooth-edged

HEIGHT: 30-40 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-45 cm

Cimicifuga racemosa
BLACK SNAKEROOT
  • AKA Actaea racemosa
  • Fragrant, white, bottlebrush-like flowers
  • Clump forming perennial with green, sharp-toothed leaves

HEIGHT: 100-175 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-90 cm

Claytonia virginica
SPRING BEAUTY
  • White to light pink, five-petalled blooms have pink veins and anthers
  • Flowers open on warm sunny days, stay closed on cloudy days and at night
  • Flowers finish and plant goes back into dormancy

HEIGHT: 10-15 cm  ·  SPREAD: 15-25 cm

Clematis virginiana
VIRGIN'S BOWER
  • Flower Colour: Small, white
  • Flower Size: 3 cm
  • Bloom Time: All summer

HEIGHT: 4-6 m  ·  SPREAD: 4-5 m

Comptonia peregrina
SWEET FERN
  • Despite its name, it is not a fern, but actually a deciduous shrub
  • Insignificant greenish flowers, both male and female on the same plant
  • Brown burrs contain edible nutlets

HEIGHT: 30-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-150 cm

Coreopsis lanceolata
LANCE-LEAVED TICKSEED
  • Daisy-like yellow flowers
  • Eight petals with toothed edges surround a central yellow eye
  • Narrow lance-shaped leaves, 25 cm long x 5 cm wide

HEIGHT: 30-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-50 cm

Coreopsis tripteris
TALL COREOPSIS
  • Eight, yellow, ray petals surround a brown, central eye
  • Thin, hairless, lance-shaped leaves are distributed along the stem
  • One of the tallest species of coreopsis

HEIGHT: 125-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-100 cm

Cornus alternifolia
PAGODA DOGWOOD
  • Tiny yellowish-white fragrant flowers in flat-topped clusters in late spring
  • Clusters of bluish-black berries in the summer
  • Glossy green leaves turn red in the fall

HEIGHT: 4-5 m  ·  SPREAD: 7-8 m

Cornus amomum
SILKY DOGWOOD
  • Flat-topped cluster of creamy-white flowers
  • White berries will ripen to blue in colour
  • Dark red branches are attractive in the winter

HEIGHT: 200-250 cm  ·  SPREAD: 200-250 cm

Cornus canadensis
BUNCHBERRY
  • Beautiful native ground cover with small white flowers
  • Flower bracts will develop a purplish tinge as they mature
  • Red berry clusters appear by midsummer, after the flowers finish

HEIGHT: 10-15 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-30 cm

Cornus florida
WHITE FLOWERING DOGWOOD
  • White bracts are very showy around inconspicuous flowers before the leaves appear
  • Oval, glossy, red fruit, held in clusters, are attractive to birds
  • Drooping, glossy green leaves

HEIGHT: 7-8 m  ·  SPREAD: 7-8 m

Cornus racemosa
GRAY DOGWOOD
  • White, panicled flowers produce white berries in the fall
  • Grayish-red, young branches provide contrast in the winter
  • Foliage turns purple in the fall

HEIGHT: 3-4 m  ·  SPREAD: 3-4 m

Cornus sericea
RED OSIER DOGWOOD
  • Flat-topped panicles of small white flowers lead to white berries in the fall
  • Dark red branches are attractive in the winter
  • Lightly pubescent green summer leaves turn purple in autumn

HEIGHT: 175-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 200-250 cm

Corylus americana
AMERICAN HAZELNUT
  • Male flowers are brown, decorative catkins before the leaves appear
  • Female flowers are small and red
  • Edible fruit emerges white, turning brown in the summer

HEIGHT: 4-5 m  ·  SPREAD: 2-3 m

Corylus cornuta
BEAKED HAZEL
  • Male flowers are brown, decorative catkins before the leaves
  • Female flowers are small and red
  • Edible fruit emerges white, turning brown in the summer,

HEIGHT: 250-300 cm  ·  SPREAD: 200-250 cm

Crataegus mollis
DOWNY HAWTHORN
  • Densely branched, rounded crown
  • Branches are covered in white flowers in spring
  • Flowers are followed by berries, ripening yellow-red to scarlet

HEIGHT: 10-12 m  ·  SPREAD: 6-8 m

Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens
LARGE YELLOW LADY'S SLIPPER
  • AKA Cypripedium calceolus var. pubescens
  • Flowers have showy maroon to dark green petals and a deep yellow, pouch-like lip
  • Each plant generally produces only one flower, rarely two

HEIGHT: 30-40 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-35 cm

Cypripedium reginae
SHOWY LADY'S SLIPPER
  • AKA Cypripedium album, Cypripedium spectabile
  • Flowers are showy, white petals with a rose-pink, pouch-like lip
  • Upright foliage of soft, folded, ovate to fan-shaped leaves

HEIGHT: 50-75 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-30 cm

Dennstaedtia punctilobula
HAY SCENTED FERN
  • Delicate, green fronds, 30-45 cm long
  • Smells like freshly mown grass when crushed
  • Turns a yellow-orange in the fall

HEIGHT: 45-65 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-90 cm

Deschampsia cespitosa
TUFTED HAIR GRASS
  • Dense mounding semi-evergreen clump of green blades turning light brown in the fall
  • Flowers feature green, purple, silver, and gold tones
  • Bloom Time: Early to late summer

HEIGHT: 60-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-80 cm

Deschampsia flexuosa
WAVY HAIR GRASS
  • Dense mounding semi-evergreen clump with very thin green blades, up to 50 cm long
  • Numerous loose flower panicles feature purple to bronze tones
  • Flowers change to gold and yellow as they mature

HEIGHT: 40-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-50 cm

Desmodium canadense
SHOWY TICK TREFOIL
  • Spikes of pink to lavender sweet-pea-like flower clusters
  • Velvety hairs cover the stems and the tri-lobed compound leaves
  • This drought-tolerant plant can be grown on rooftops with as little as 15 cm of growing medium

HEIGHT: 100-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Dicentra canadensis
SQUIRREL CORN
  • AKA Bicuculla canadensis, Corydalis canadensis, Diclytra canadensis
  • Greenish-white heart-shaped flowers appear on arching stems above the foliage
  • Some flowers may have a mauve tinge

HEIGHT: 25-30 cm  ·  SPREAD: 25-30 cm

Dicentra cucullaria
DUTCHMAN'S BREECHES
  • Flower stalks bear a row of nodding double spurred white flowers with yellow tips
  • Flowers rise above the foliage
  • Compact clump forming deeply divided blue-gray leaves up to 25 cm long

HEIGHT: 20-30 cm  ·  SPREAD: 25-40 cm

Diervilla lonicera
BUSH HONEYSUCKLE
  • Small fragrant yellow flowers
  • Medium green leaves with bronze overtones turn burgundy in the fall
  • Mounding, spreading habit re-roots to provide an effective ground cover

HEIGHT: 80-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-125 cm

Dryopteris clintoniana
CLINTON'S WOOD FERN
  • AKA Dryopteris cristata var. clintoniana
  • Broad, triangular fronds of deep green
  • Fertile fronds are taller and more upright than the sterile fronds

HEIGHT: 75-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 75-90 cm

Dryopteris filix-mas
MALE FERN
  • Lance-shaped, mid-green fronds
  • Crown is made of large rhizomes that are covered in fuzzy, brown hair
  • Upright, clumping habit

HEIGHT: 75-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 75-90 cm

Dryopteris goldiana
GOLDIE'S FERN
  • Light green fronds are produced in groups along the rhizomes
  • Upright habit and long, wiry stems
  • Spreads slowly by shallow, underground rhizomes

HEIGHT: 100-120 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Dryopteris marginalis
MARGINAL SHIELD FERN
  • Fiddleheads emerge with a thick, brown "fur"
  • Leathery, deep green fronds
  • Crown consists of large rhizomes covered in fuzzy, brown hairs

HEIGHT: 45-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Dryopteris spinulosa
TOOTHED WOOD FERN
  • AKA Dryopteris carthusiana
  • Narrow, lance-shaped, pale green fronds with finely cut leaflets
  • Upright, clumping habit

HEIGHT: 60-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-45 cm

Echinacea pallida
PALE PURPLE CONEFLOWER
  • Narrow, pale purple-pink petals droop from a spiny dark cone
  • Flowers up to 10 cm
  • Lance-shaped hairy basal leaves

HEIGHT: 75-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-50 cm

Echinacea purpurea
PURPLE CONEFLOWER
  • AKA Rudbeckia purpurea
  • Drooping petals of purple-pink flowers with a spiky orange cone
  • Lance-shaped and coarse-toothed leaves on sturdy stems

HEIGHT: 90-120 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Elaeagnus commutata
SILVERBERRY
  • AKA Elaeagnus argentea
  • Inconspicuous fragrant yellow flowers
  • Silvery fruits in late summer

HEIGHT: 150-175 cm  ·  SPREAD: 175-200 cm

Elaeagnus umbellata
AUTUMN OLIVE
  • Small, fragrant, creamy-white flowers are hidden in the foliage,
  • Silvery fruits with brown spots turning reddish in the fall are tasty when ripe
  • Leaves green above, silvery on the undersides

HEIGHT: 3-4 m  ·  SPREAD: 3-4 m

Eleocharis obtusa
BLUNT SPIKERUSH
  • A clumping rush with slender dark green cylindrical stems
  • Each stem is topped with a small dark brown oblong flower spike
  • Small narrow leaves are sometimes present near the base of the plant

HEIGHT: 20-40 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-25 cm

Eleocharis palustris
COMMON SPIKERUSH
  • Narrow dark green round stems spread by rhizomatous roots
  • A dark reddish-purple sheath surrounds the base of the stems
  • Each stem features a small dark brown oblong flower spike

HEIGHT: 25-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-150 cm

Elodea canadensis
CANADA PONDWEED
  • AKA Anacharis canadensis, Philotria canadensis, Philotria linearis
  • Numerous, overlapping, dark green, fine-toothed leaves which curl slightly downward
  • Inconspicuous, white to pale pink flowers appear on the surface

HEIGHT: 20-30 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-30 cm

Elymus canadensis
CANADA WILD RYE
  • Grass has a slightly arching, upright habit and forms a loose clump
  • Leaf blades can range in colour from green to bluish-green, depending on growing conditions
  • Nodding seed heads emerge green, changing to a light tan in the summer

HEIGHT: 125-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-90 cm

Elymus glaucus
BLUE WILD RYE GRASS
  • Forms a slightly arching, upright clump.
  • Coarse blue-green leaves are 1 cm wide at the base, and grow to a narrow point
  • Flower spikes emerge green, changing to a light tan

HEIGHT: 100-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-50 cm

Elymus virginicus
VIRGINIA WILD RYE
  • Grass has a slightly arching, upright habit and forms a loose clump
  • Coarse leaf blades are grayish-green
  • Flower spikes emerge green, change to brown and are a bit thicker than E. canadensis

HEIGHT: 100-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Epilobium angustifolium
FIREWEED
  • AKA Chamerion angustifolium
  • Tall branchless flower stems with purple flowers
  • Blooms from June to September

HEIGHT: 60-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-90 cm

Equisetum fluviatile
RIVER HORSETAIL
  • Forms dense colonies in shallow water or ponds
  • Tall, erect, dark green, smooth stems sport fine ridges
  • At each joint, the stem has a whorl of tiny, black-tipped, scale leaves

HEIGHT: 60-75 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-70 cm

Equisetum hyemale
SCOURING RUSH
  • Rigid, hollow, bamboo-like stems
  • Dark green with black banding at joints
  • Produces small, brown, cone-like, stem tips in the summer

HEIGHT: 60-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-200 cm

Erythronium americanum
TROUT LILY
  • Nodding, yellow, bell-shaped flowers
  • Flowers may have yellow, purple or brown anthers
  • Plants having two, emerging, basal leaves that will likely produce a flower

HEIGHT: 10-15 cm  ·  SPREAD: 10-15 cm

Eupatorium fistulosum
HOLLOW JOE PYE WEED
  • AKA Eupatoriadelphus fistulosus, Eutrochium fistulosum
  • Large, rounded, tight clusters of pink or purplish-mauve flowers
  • Lance-shaped, sharp-toothed, dark green leaves on wine-coloured stems

HEIGHT: 150-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-75 cm

Eupatorium maculatum
JOE PYE WEED
  • AKA Eupatoriadelphus maculatus, Eupatorium purpureum ssp. maculatum
  • Flat-topped heads of purple-pink flowers
  • Sharp-toothed, coarse, dark green leaves on rigid, purple, spotted stems

HEIGHT: 150-175 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-120 cm

Eupatorium perfoliatum
BONESET
  • AKA Eupatorium truncatum
  • Purple-tinged, white, clustered flowers
  • Opposite, lance-shaped, toothed, veined, mid-green leaves

HEIGHT: 90-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-90 cm

Eupatorium rugosum
WHITE SNAKEROOT
  • AKA Eupatorium ageratoides, Eupatorium urticifolium, Ageratina altissima
  • White flower clusters
  • Sharp-toothed, ovate leaves of deep green

HEIGHT: 80-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-75 cm

Fagus grandifolia
AMERICAN BEECH
  • Low, densely branched with an upright, oval to rounded, spreading crown
  • Trunks have distinctive, thin, smooth, gray bark
  • Small, yellowish-green flowers bloom

HEIGHT: 18-25 m  ·  SPREAD: 16-20 m

Fragaria vesca
WOODLAND STRAWBERRY
  • Habitats include fields, woodland borders, streambanks, and meadows
  • White flower petals surround yellow stamens
  • Flowers are followed by edible bright red fruit

HEIGHT: 10-15 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-40 cm

Fragaria virginiana
VIRGINIA STRAWBERRY
  • Habitats include fields, woodland borders, streambanks, and meadows
  • White, flower petals surround yellow stamens
  • Flowers are followed by edible fruit

HEIGHT: 15-20 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-40 cm

Fraxinus americana
WHITE ASH
  • Pyramidal when young, maturing to a rounded crown
  • Dark green, pinnate leaves with white undersides emerge later in the spring
  • Several (5 to 9) leaflets make up the compound leaves

HEIGHT: 21-23 m  ·  SPREAD: 14-16 m

Fraxinus nigra
BLACK ASH
  • Open crown, with ascending branches
  • Winter buds are dark brown with a velvety texture
  • Compound, oval to lance-shaped, green leaves

HEIGHT: 15-20 m  ·  SPREAD: 9-10 m

Fraxinus pennsylvanica
GREEN/RED ASH
  • Pyramidal when young, maturing to a rounded, irregular crown
  • Dark green, pinnate, compound leaves emerge later in the spring
  • Drooping clusters of winged samaras ripen in the fall

HEIGHT: 18-20 m  ·  SPREAD: 10-15 m

Gaillardia aristata
BLANKET FLOWER
  • Yellow tipped petals with dark red bases surrounding reddish brown eyes
  • Lance-shaped dark green leaves

HEIGHT: 40-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-60 cm

Gaultheria procumbens
WINTERGREEN
  • Small, waxy, soft pink to white, bell-shaped flowers
  • Red berries develop in early autumn and last through the winter
  • Aromatic, evergreen, dark green foliage

HEIGHT: 10-15 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-30 cm

Geranium maculatum
WILD GERANIUM
  • Five-petaled flowers of pale pink to lilac
  • Attractive, cranesbill-like seeds heads follow the flowers
  • Basal leaves are dark green and deeply palmate

HEIGHT: 40-45 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Geum triflorum
GRANDPA'S WHISKERS
  • Flowers emerge from nodding reddish-purple buds on red stems
  • Reddish-purple bell-shaped flowers hang in groups of three
  • Attractive silky seed heads are left after flowering

HEIGHT: 30-45 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-35 cm

Gillenia trifoliata
BOWMAN'S ROOT
  • AKA Porteranthus trifoliatus
  • Dainty, star-shaped, white flowers with red petioles
  • Attractive, red cups(calyces) remain long after the petals have fallen

HEIGHT: 65-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 80-90 cm

Glyceria striata
FOWL MANNAGRASS
  • AKA: Glyceria striata ssp. stricta, Panicularia nervata, Panicularia striata
  • Forms an upright clump of coarse green leaves 25 cm long arranged alternately along sturdy stems
  • Pyramidal airy panicles rise on slender stems above the foliage

HEIGHT: 60-110 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-60 cm

Goodyera pubescens
DOWNY RATTLESNAKE PLAINTAIN
  • AKA Epipactis pubescens, Neottia pubescens, Peramium pubescens
  • Spikes of small, white flowers form on slender stems
  • Blue-green leaves have prominent, white veins

HEIGHT: 15-20 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-25 cm

Gymnocarpium dryopteris
WESTERN OAK FERN
  • Delicate pale green fronds in the spring deepen in colour with age
  • Fronds emerge from long creeping rhizomes
  • Hairy fiddleheads rise from under the soil: not from a central crown like most ferns

HEIGHT: 15-30 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-45 cm

Gymnocladus dioicus
KENTUCKY COFFEE TREE
  • Open, oval crown with irregular branching
  • Greenish-white flowers appear on both male and female plants
  • Fertilized flowers on female plants give way to long, flat, brown, seed pods

HEIGHT: 17-20 m  ·  SPREAD: 13-15 m

Hamamelis virginiana
WITCHHAZEL
  • Soft yellow, spidery, fragrant flowers in autumn
  • Textured, medium to bright green leaves
  • Leaves turn orange-yellow in the fall

HEIGHT: 4-5 m  ·  SPREAD: 4-5 m

Helenium autumnale
SNEEZEWEED
  • Erect, clump forming habit
  • Daisy-like flowers with yellow petals and brownish-yellow cones
  • Lance-shaped dark green leaves

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-75 cm

Helianthus divaricatus
WOODLAND SUNFLOWER
  • Yellow daisy-like flowers with darker yellow centres
  • Broad, lance-shaped, dark green leaves
  • Bloom Time: Midsummer until mid-fall

HEIGHT: 90-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 75-90 cm

Heliopsis helianthoides
FALSE SUNFLOWER
  • Single to semi-double flowers
  • Yellow daisy-like flowers with a brownish-yellow centre
  • Mid-green, roughly serrated, ovate leaves

HEIGHT: 90-120 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-60 cm

Hepatica acutiloba
SHARP-LOBED HEPATICA
  • AKA Hepatica acuta, H. nobilis var acuta
  • Daisy-like flowers in shades of pink, white and lavender
  • Flowers appear before or during the emergence of the new foliage

HEIGHT: 15-20 cm  ·  SPREAD: 15-20 cm

Hepatica americana
ROUND-LOBED HEPATICA
  • AKA Anemone americana, Hepatica triloba, H. nobilis var. obtusa
  • Flowers vary in shades of blue, white and pink
  • Flowers appear before or during the emergence of new foliage

HEIGHT: 7-10 cm  ·  SPREAD: 25-30 cm

Hibiscus moscheutos
SWAMP ROSE MALLOW
  • Other common names: Wild Cotton, Mallow Rose, Crimson-eyed Rose Mallow
  • Flowers can be white, pink or red with occasional bicolours
  • Three to five lobes of bright green foliage with hairy undersides

HEIGHT: 130-160 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-150 cm

Hierochloe odorata
SWEET GRASS
  • AKA Anthoxanthum nitens
  • Forms a spreading, upright mound of gray-green foliage
  • Blades reach 60 cm high, then sag toward the ground, with upturned ends

HEIGHT: 30-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-150 cm

Hypericum kalmianum
POT O' GOLD
  • Yellow, five-petaled flowers are almost obscured by a cloud of stamens
  • Flowers are followed by seed capsules
  • Gray-green, narrow leaves

HEIGHT: 50-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Hypericum prolificum
SHRUBBY ST. JOHN'S WORT
  • Yellow, five-petaled flowers are almost obscured by a cloud of stamens
  • Flowers are followed by seed capsules
  • Gray-green, narrow leaves

HEIGHT: 80-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 80-100 cm

Hystrix patula
BOTTLEBRUSH GRASS
  • AKA Elymus hystrix
  • Forms an upright loose clump of coarse green leaves
  • Green bottlebrush-like flowers emerge above the foliage

HEIGHT: 90-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-60 cm

Ilex verticillata
WINTERBERRY HOLLY
  • Flowers are white and inconspicuous
  • Red berries persist into winter (on female plants only)
  • Dark green, glossy leaves turn (occasionally) to purple

HEIGHT: 175-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 175-200 cm

Iris versicolor
BLUE FLAG IRIS
  • Narrow-petaled, lavender-blue flowers with creamy-yellow throats
  • Falls have deep purple veining with lighter blue standards
  • Bright green sword-like foliage

HEIGHT: 60-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-75 cm

Iris virginica
PALE BLUE FLAG IRIS
  • Narrow petalled, pale blue flowers with creamy-yellow throats
  • Standards are larger and longer than Iris versicolor
  • Bright green, sword-like foliage

HEIGHT: 60-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-80 cm

Juglans cinerea
BUTTERNUT
  • Tall, oval to rounded growth habit
  • Large, pinnate, compound leaves emerge in late spring and drop early fall
  • Foliage colour is dark green in the summer, becoming dull yellow in early fall

HEIGHT: 12-18 m  ·  SPREAD: 12-18 m

Juglans nigra
BLACK WALNUT
  • Tall, oval to rounded, growth habit
  • Large pinnate compound leaves emerge in late spring and drop early fall
  • Foliage colour is dark green in the summer, becoming yellow in early fall

HEIGHT: 18-25 m  ·  SPREAD: 16-18 m

Juncus effusus
SOFT RUSH
  • Forms an upright vase-shaped clump of single stalks
  • Thin dark green cylindrical stems look stiff but are soft to the touch
  • Flowers emerge in small clusters from a split in the stems, slightly below the tips of the plant

HEIGHT: 90-120 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-80 in

Juncus tenuis
POVERTY RUSH
  • Forms a dense clump of upright narrow stems with a basal tuft of flat grass-like leaves
  • Leaves and cylindrical stems are mid-green
  • Clusters of greenish-brown seed capsules are found near the terminal tips of the plant

HEIGHT: 20-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-50 cm

Juniperus virginiana
EASTERN RED CEDAR
  • Tall, columnar growth habit
  • Upright growing foliage is green during the summer
  • Winter foliage turns a bronze colour

HEIGHT: 5-7 m  ·  SPREAD: 2-3 m

Koeleria pyramidata (cristata)
PRAIRIE JUNE GRASS
  • AKA: Koeleria cristata, Koeleria macrantha
  • Forms a dense mound of green to gray-green, narrow leaves
  • Foliage colour may vary slightly according to growing conditions

HEIGHT: 15-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-30 cm

Larix laricina
AMERICAN LARCH
  • Rapid growing conifer that is pyramidal when young
  • Soft, bluish-green needles turn golden-yellow in the fall
  • Used for windscreens or in solitary plantings

HEIGHT: 18-30 m  ·  SPREAD: 6-10 m

Leersia oryzoides
RICE CUT GRASS
  • Forms a clump of alternately arranged, dull green leaves branching from upright stems
  • Leaf margins are sharply serrated with downward-facing barbs that can cause serious cuts
  • Spikelets of flowers are yellowish-green and often form on one side of the upright stem

HEIGHT: 80-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-60 cm

Liatris aspera
ROUGH BLAZING STAR
  • Rounded, fluffy, mauve-lilac flowers
  • Average flower stalks have 15-40 loosely spaced blooms
  • Blooms open at the top of the spike and then slowly open downward

HEIGHT: 30-45 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-45 cm

Liatris cylindracea
ONTARIO BLAZING STAR
  • Tubular, fluffy, rose-purple flowers
  • Average flower stalks have 15-25 loosely spaced blooms
  • Blooms open at the top of the spike and then slowly open downward

HEIGHT: 20-25 cm  ·  SPREAD: 15-30 cm

Liatris spicata
DENSE BLAZING STAR
  • AKA Liatris callilepis
  • Round, fluffy, violet-purple flowers
  • Blooms open at the top of the spike and then slowly open downward

HEIGHT: 30-50 cm  ·  SPREAD: 25-45 cm

Lilium canadense
CANADA LILY
  • Yellow to orange-red, trumpet-shaped flowers with dark spots
  • 15-20, nodding flowers per mature stem
  • Narrow, dark green leaves on sturdy stems

HEIGHT: 125-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 15-20 cm

Lindera benzoin
SPICEBUSH
  • Yellowish-white flowers appear before the leaves
  • Female plants display crimson berries contrasting with the gold, fall colour
  • Medium-green, oval leaves

HEIGHT: 3-4 m  ·  SPREAD: 2-3 m

Liriodendron tulipifera
TULIP TREE
  • Pyramidal to broad, conical growth habit
  • Yellow-green tulip-like flowers bloom after the leaves are fully developed, with some dried bracts persisting into winter
  • Four-lobed bright green leaves turn golden-yellow in the fall

HEIGHT: 20-25 m  ·  SPREAD: 10-15 m

Lobelia cardinalis
CARDINAL FLOWER
  • Spikes of scarlet-red flowers on unbranched stems
  • Tubular flowers are two-lipped
  • Finely toothed, narrow, dark green leaves

HEIGHT: 50-70 cm  ·  SPREAD: 45-60 cm

Lobelia siphilitica
GREAT BLUE LOBELIA
  • Spikes of clear-blue flowers on unbranched stems
  • Tubular flowers are two-lipped
  • Finely toothed, oblong, green leaves

HEIGHT: 50-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 45-60 cm

Lonicera involucrata
BLACK TWINBERRY
  • Small, yellow flowers appear with the leaves
  • Black berries are encased in small, red bracts in the spring
  • Medium green, glossy leaves

HEIGHT: 250-300 cm  ·  SPREAD: 200-250 cm

Lupinus perennis
SUNDIAL LUPINE
  • Other Common Names: Indian Beet, Old Maids Bonnets
  • Compact spikes of showy flowers
  • Blue-violet flowers with a white, central streak

HEIGHT: 35-40 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-45 cm

Magnolia acuminata
CUCUMBERTREE MAGNOLIA
  • Pyramidal when young, matures with a straight trunk and a rounded crown
  • Greenish-yellow flowers bloom high in the tree
  • Cylindrical bunches of seeds, (cucumbers) are green in late summer, ripening red, drying brown

HEIGHT: 20-25 m  ·  SPREAD: 15-20 m

Maianthemum canadense
WILD LILY OF THE VALLEY
  • AKA Unifolium canadense
  • Clusters of tiny star-shaped white flowers rise above the leaves
  • Small clusters of round berries

HEIGHT: 10-15 cm  ·  SPREAD: 10-15 cm

Maianthemum stellatum
STARRY FALSE LILY OF THE VALLEY
  • AKA Smilacina stellatum
  • Clusters of tiny, star-shaped, pure white blooms
  • Light, floral scent

HEIGHT: 30-50 cm  ·  SPREAD: 25-30 cm

Matteuccia struthiopteris
OSTRICH FERN
  • AKA Matteuccia pennsylvanica
  • Broad, lance-shaped, pale green fronds
  • Smells like freshly mown hay when fronds are broken

HEIGHT: 90-130 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-90 cm

Mentha piperita
PEPPERMINT
  • Small, pink, sterile, tubular flowers
  • Ovate, lance-shaped, toothed mid-green foliage on red stems
  • Plants are edible raw or cooked

HEIGHT: 50-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 75-90 cm

Mertensia virginica
VIRGINIA BLUEBELLS
  • AKA Mertensia pulmonarioides
  • Sapphire-blue, nodding, trumpet-shaped flowers
  • New buds emerge pink and change to blue as they mature

HEIGHT: 40-45 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-45 cm

Mimulus ringens
MONKEY FLOWER
  • AKA Diplacus ringens
  • Lilac-purple, tubular, two-lipped flowers
  • Individual flowers develop from the leaf axils of the upper stems

HEIGHT: 75-85 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-50 cm

Monarda didyma
BEEBALM
  • Tubular, two-lipped, bright scarlet-red blooms
  • Coarse, clump forming perennial
  • Deep green leaves have a minty fragrance when crushed

HEIGHT: 60-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-100 cm

Monarda fistulosa
WILD BERGEMOT
  • Whorls of small, tubular flowers are backed by leafy bracts
  • Lavender-pink flowers appear on square stems just above foliage
  • Matte-green, toothed, lance to oval-shaped leaves, 10 cm long

HEIGHT: 90-110 cm  ·  SPREAD: 75-90 cm

Monarda punctata
SPOTTED BEE BALM
  • AKA Monarda punctata ssp. villicaulis
  • Pale yellow flowers, with purple spots, rest on narrow, pink bracts
  • Tiered flowers are just above foliage

HEIGHT: 40-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-30 cm

Myrica gale
SWEET GALE
  • AKA Myrica palustris
  • Upright, oval habit
  • Waxy yellow catkins appear before the leaves

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 80-100 cm

Myrica pensylvanica
BAYBERRY
  • AKA Morella pensylvanica
  • Waxy yellowish-green catkins appear before the leaves
  • Fragrant, glossy, grayish-green foliage

HEIGHT: 175-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 175-200 cm

Nuphar lutea
YELLOW POND LILY
  • AKA Nuphar luteum
  • Hardy, aquatic perennial
  • Naturally found in shallow ponds and along stream borders

HEIGHT: 100-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-200 cm

Nymphaea odorata
WHITE WATERLILY
  • Large, fragrant, white flowers with central, yellow stamens
  • Flowers are composed of numerous, white petals and yellow stamens
  • Fragrant flowers open at dawn and close at noon each day

HEIGHT: 10-15 cm  ·  SPREAD: 90-200 cm

Nyssa sylvatica
SOURGUM
  • Upright, oval to rounded crown
  • Small, non-showy, greenish-white flowers
  • Mainly dioecious: trees are male or female and sometimes both

HEIGHT: 10-15 m  ·  SPREAD: 9-10 m

Oenothera biennis
EVENING PRIMROSE
  • Fragrant yellow saucer-shaped flowers appear on tall stalks
  • Blooms open at dusk and closing by noon the following day
  • Lance-shaped, slightly serrated, mid-green leaves

HEIGHT: 100-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-45 cm

Oenothera fruticosa ssp. glauca
SUNDROPS
  • AKA Oenothera tetragona
  • Canary-yellow, sauce-shaped flowers
  • Individual flowers open for 1 day

HEIGHT: 45-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Onoclea sensibilis
SENSITIVE FERN
  • Broad, smooth, pale green fronds have wavy, deeply grooved, margined leaflets
  • Fronds emerge along long creeping rhizomes
  • In the spring, emerging fronds may have a coppery tone

HEIGHT: 30-50 cm  ·  SPREAD: 90-120 cm

Opuntia humifusa
PRICKLY PEAR
  • AKA Opuntia compressa, Opuntia rafinesquei
  • Waxy yellow flowers grow singularly or in small clusters along the top edge of the cactus pad
  • Blooms last one day

HEIGHT: 20-30 cm  ·  SPREAD: 75-90 cm

Osmunda cinnamomea
CINNAMON FERN
  • AKA Osmundastrum cinnamomeum
  • Erect, mid-green, lanceolate fronds
  • Narrow cinnamon-coloured fertile fronds appear in the spring

HEIGHT: 70-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-75 cm

Osmunda regalis
ROYAL FERN
  • Unique, widely spaced, oblong leaflets, with a distinct central vein
  • Pale green leaves in sunlight
  • Deeper green in shade with reddish stems

HEIGHT: 90-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-90 cm

Ostrya virginiana
IRONWOOD
  • Upright, rounded to oval crown
  • Reddish-brown male flowers and greenish female flowers precede the leaves
  • Dark green birch-like leaves increase in size toward the end of a twig

HEIGHT: 10-12 m  ·  SPREAD: 7-8 m

Panicum virgatum
SWITCH GRASS
  • Forms an upright, dense clump of medium-green foliage
  • Flat leaf blades are 30 cm long, branching from upright stems
  • Airy panicles rising above the foliage are reddish-pink changing to tan in the fall

HEIGHT: 120-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 75-100 cm

Parthenocissus quinquefolia
VIRGINIA CREEPER
  • Insignificant, small, clusters of greenish-white flowers
  • Coarse-toothed, deep green leaves with 5 leaflets
  • Foliage emerges purplish in colour in the spring, to green in the summer

HEIGHT: 20-30 m  ·  SPREAD: 15-20 m

Peltandra virginica
GREEN ARROW ARUM
  • AKA Peltandra undulata
  • Tiny, greenish-white flowers
  • Each flower is hidden by a long, 20 cm spathe

HEIGHT: 50-75 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Penstemon hirsutus
HAIRY BEARDTONGUE
  • Tubular, two-lipped, lavender flowers with a white throat
  • Flowers grow in clusters on hairy, green stems
  • Toothed, lance-shaped, hairy, green leaves, 5-10 cm long

HEIGHT: 50-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-50 cm

Persicaria amphibia
WATER KNOTWEED
  • AKA Polygonum amphibium
  • Habitat includes shallow waters along lakes, ponds, ditches
  • Adaptable to short periods of drought

HEIGHT: 30-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 0-0 cm

Phlox divaricata
WOODLAND PHLOX
  • Lilac, pink or blue flowers form loose clusters
  • Clusters appear at the tips of each stem
  • Lance-shaped to elliptic, mid-green leaves are 5 cm long

HEIGHT: 20-30 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-45 cm

Phlox pilosa
DOWNY PHLOX
  • The flowers may be white, pink, or lavender
  • Individual flowers are loosely arranged in terminal clusters
  • Narrow, hairy, lance-shaped, mid-green leaves

HEIGHT: 40-50 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-40 cm

Physocarpus opulifolius
COMMON NINEBARK
  • Flat-topped cluster of white flowers
  • Flowers give way to reddish fruit in the fall
  • Green, three-lobed, textured leaves turn yellow in the fall

HEIGHT: 175-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 175-200 cm

Physostegia virginiana
OBEDIENT PLANT
  • Upright, clumping habit
  • Dense spikes of pink to pale lilac, occasionally white, snapdragon-like flowers
  • Each flower is surrounded by a small, leaf-like bract

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-80 cm

Picea glauca
WHITE SPRUCE
  • Dense, medium-sized, uniform, pyramidal conifer
  • Stiff, spirally arranged needles are blue-green
  • Needles are aromatic when crushed

HEIGHT: 20-25 m  ·  SPREAD: 6-8 m

Picea mariana
BLACK SPRUCE
  • Slow-growing, medium-sized evergreen with a narrow, spire-like shape
  • Spirally arranged needles are blue-green and blunt on the ends
  • Descending branches have upturned ends

HEIGHT: 15-20 m  ·  SPREAD: 8-12 m

Pinus resinosa
RED PINE
  • Conical in form with an oval to rounded crown
  • Shiny, dark green needles grow 10 to 15 cm long
  • Horizontal to ascending branching

HEIGHT: 30-35 m  ·  SPREAD: 6-7 m

Pinus strobus
EASTERN WHITE PINE
  • Rapid growing, broadly pyramidal evergreen
  • Open branching with a smooth bark
  • Long, soft, light green to blue-green needles

HEIGHT: 20-24 m  ·  SPREAD: 7-10 m

Platanus occidentalis
AMERICAN SYCAMORE
  • Horizontal branching with a rounded habit
  • Large medium green leaves are maple-like in shape
  • Fall colour is an insignificant yellow-brown

HEIGHT: 27-30 m  ·  SPREAD: 20-25 m

Podophyllum peltatum
MAYAPPLE
  • Palmately-lobed, mid-green leaves are up to 25 cm wide
  • Generally only one leaf per stem, sometimes two
  • Flowers have six to nine, white petals with yellow stamens

HEIGHT: 30-45 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-50 cm

Polystichum acrostichoides
CHRISTMAS FERN
  • Glossy, leathery, deep green leaves
  • Young fiddleheads are covered in fine silver hairs
  • Upright, clumping habit

HEIGHT: 45-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-45 cm

Pontederia cordata
PICKERELWEED
  • Aquatic perennial with glossy green, heart-shaped, basal leaves
  • Unbranched, hairless, flower stalks
  • Violet-blue, hyacinth-like flowers appear in closely packed, terminal spikes

HEIGHT: 40-50 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-80 cm

Populus balsamifera
BALSAM POPLAR
  • Narrow, pyramidal crown with ascending branches
  • Buds are sticky, resinous, and strongly aromatic
  • Leaves are ovate, dark green on top, silver underneath

HEIGHT: 25-30 m  ·  SPREAD: 14-16 m

Populus deltoides
EASTERN COTTONWOOD
  • Upright, oval habit
  • Glossy, triangular, green leaves turn yellow in the fall
  • Dioecious: trees are either male or female, flowering before the leaves

HEIGHT: 20-25 m  ·  SPREAD: 16-18 m

Populus grandidentata
BIG-TOOTHED ASPEN
  • Loose, open, irregular crown with coarse, spreading branches
  • Leaves are ovate with a serrated edge, green on top and whitish underneath
  • Drooping catkins are tan coloured at maturity

HEIGHT: 18-20 m  ·  SPREAD: 8-10 m

Populus tremuloides
TREMBLING ASPEN
  • Narrow, rounded crown with ascending branches
  • Bark colour is a beautiful silvery-white
  • Nearly round, glossy dark green leaves in the summer 'tremble' due to flat leaf stems

HEIGHT: 10-15 m  ·  SPREAD: 5-7 m

Prunus americana
AMERICAN PLUM
  • Upright, broad, spreading crown
  • Clusters of white flowers
  • Flowers are followed by small, edible, round, red plums

HEIGHT: 6-8 m  ·  SPREAD: 4-5 m

Prunus pensylvanica
PIN CHERRY, FIRE CHERRY
  • Upright, almost columnar habit, forming colonies
  • Burnished-bronze exfoliating bark
  • Clusters of fragrant florets unfold with the leaves

HEIGHT: 8-10 m  ·  SPREAD: 3-4 m

Prunus serotina
BLACK CHERRY
  • Narrow, columnar to rounded crown
  • Pendulous clusters of fragrant white flowers
  • Flowers are followed by red pea-sized cherries, ripening to purple-black

HEIGHT: 18-24 m  ·  SPREAD: 8-10 m

Prunus virginiana
COMMON CHOKECHERRY
  • Small, fragrant, white or pink flowers emerge simultaneously with the leaves
  • Red to blue to black fruit ripens in July, eaten by birds
  • Semi-glossy, green leaves occasionally turn pinkish in the fall

HEIGHT: 6-7 m  ·  SPREAD: 5-6 m

Ptelea trifoliata
HOP TREE
  • Dense rounded shrub or small tree
  • Shiny dark green leaves
  • Tiny white flowers

HEIGHT: 5-6 m  ·  SPREAD: 5-6 m

Pteridium aquilinum
BRACKEN FERN
  • Sturdy, bright green, triangular-shaped fronds
  • Found in large patches in wet or dry conditions
  • Single fronds emerge from spreading rhizomes

HEIGHT: 40-80 cm  ·  SPREAD: 80-100 cm

Pycnanthemum virginianum
VIRGINIA MOUNTAIN MINT
  • Well-branched, upright habit
  • Terminal clusters of white, two-lipped flowers
  • Narrow, toothless, mid-green leaves, 6 cm long

HEIGHT: 60-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Quercus alba
WHITE OAK
  • Pyramidal when young, maturing to a wide-spreading, rounded crown
  • Leaves have deep rounded lobes, emerging pinkish in the spring, maturing to dark green
  • Insignificant flowers(catkins) are followed by oval acorns

HEIGHT: 18-22 m  ·  SPREAD: 18-22 m

Quercus bicolor
SWAMP WHITE OAK
  • Pyramidal when young, maturing to a broad, rounded crown
  • Leaves are glossy, dark green on top and silvery-white underneath
  • Insignificant flowers (catkins) are followed by oval acorns

HEIGHT: 15-18 m  ·  SPREAD: 15-18 m

Quercus macrocarpa
BURR OAK
  • Pyramidal when young, maturing to a broad, spreading, rounded crown
  • Twigs are sometimes ridged with corky "wings"
  • Dark green leaves are leathery with deep round lobes

HEIGHT: 18-22 m  ·  SPREAD: 13-18 m

Quercus muehlenbergii
CHINKAPIN OAK
  • Open, broad, rounded crown
  • Narrow, oblong, glossy green leaves with coarse marginal teeth
  • Insignificant flowers (catkins) are followed by oval acorns

HEIGHT: 15-18 m  ·  SPREAD: 12-18 m

Quercus palustris
PIN OAK
  • Pyramidal, broad, spreading, oval crown
  • Leaves are dark green with deep, sharply pointed lobes
  • Insignificant flowers (catkins) are followed by rounded acorns

HEIGHT: 20-25 m  ·  SPREAD: 13-18 m

Quercus prinus
CHESTNUT OAK
  • AKA Quercus montana
  • Pyramidal when young, it will grow to fill available space
  • Oval leaves are lightly toothed

HEIGHT: 20-24 m  ·  SPREAD: 16-18 m

Quercus rubra
RED OAK
  • Rounded, broad, spreading, often irregular crown
  • Dark green leaves have sharply pointed lobes
  • Insignificant flowers (catkins) are followed by acorns

HEIGHT: 16-22 m  ·  SPREAD: 15-20 m

Ratibida pinnata
GRAY-HEAD CONEFLOWER
  • AKA Lepachys pinnata
  • Upright, thick-stemmed, well-branched perennial
  • Toothed, bluish-green, lance-shaped leaves

HEIGHT: 125-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 45-60 cm

Rhus aromatica
FRAGRANT SUMAC
  • Yellowish, male and female flowers appear before the leaves
  • Clusters of reddish, hairy fruit ripen late summer and may persist into the winter
  • Medium green to blue-green, aromatic, soft leaves are sometimes glossy

HEIGHT: 125-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 175-200 cm

Rhus glabra
SMOOTH SUMAC
  • Greenish-yellow, male and female flowers
  • Clusters of reddish, hairy fruit ripen late summer and may persist into the winter
  • Medium-green to dark green, soft leaves are sometimes glossy

HEIGHT: 250-300 cm  ·  SPREAD: 250-300 cm

Rhus typhina
STAGHORN SUMAC
  • Greenish-yellow male and female flowers
  • Clusters of reddish, hairy fruit ripen late summer and may persist into the winter
  • Medium-green to dark green, soft leaves are sometimes glossy

HEIGHT: 250-300 cm  ·  SPREAD: 250-300 cm

Ribes americanum
WILD BLACK CURRANT
  • Bell-shaped flowers, pale yellow to greenish white
  • Small round fruit, ripening from green to red and finally black
  • Slightly hairy branches and leaves but are identified without thorns

HEIGHT: 125-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 150-175 cm

Ribes aureum
GOLDEN CURRANT
  • Fragrant, yellow flowers attract hummingbirds
  • Small, edible, yellow fruit ripen to black
  • Pale green leaves emerge early in the spring and turn orange-red in the fall

HEIGHT: 175-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 125-150 cm

Rosa blanda
MEADOW ROSE
  • Single light pink fragrant flowers
  • Smooth bright red rose hips in July persist into the winter
  • Dull, blue-green leaves

HEIGHT: 125-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 150-200 cm

Rosa carolina
PASTURE ROSE
  • Single pink flowers
  • Red pear-shaped fruit persists into the winter
  • Rich green leaves turn dull red in the fall

HEIGHT: 150-175 cm  ·  SPREAD: 175-200 cm

Rosa palustris
SWAMP ROSE
  • Fragrant, single, pink flowers
  • Red fruit persists into the winter
  • Medium green leaves turn dull red in the fall

HEIGHT: 150-175 cm  ·  SPREAD: 150-175 cm

Rosa setigera
PRAIRIE ROSE
  • Deep pink, single flowers fade to white
  • In late summer, bright red, rose hips appear
  • Glossy, dark green leaves turn purple-red in the fall

HEIGHT: 80-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 250-300 cm

Rubus allegheniensis
ALLEGHANY BLACKBERRY
  • Single, white flowers
  • Sweet, black, thimble-shaped fruit
  • Textured, green leaves are usually made up of three leaflets

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 175-200 cm

Rubus occidentalis
BLACK RASPBERRY
  • Single, white flowers
  • Sweet, black, thimble-shaped fruit
  • Textured, green leaves with three to five leaflets, turn yellow in the fall

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 250-300 cm

Rubus odoratus
FLOWERING RASPBERRY
  • Fragrant, single, magenta flowers
  • Small, red, thimble-shaped fruit
  • Textured, five-lobed, green leaves turn yellow in the fall

HEIGHT: 150-175 cm  ·  SPREAD: 150-175 cm

Rudbeckia hirta
GLORIOSA DAISY
  • AKA Rudbeckia gloriosa
  • Biennial or short-lived perennial
  • Pale, daisy-like flowers with golden petals surround a central, dark cone

HEIGHT: 60-70 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-60 cm

Rudbeckia laciniata
CUTLEAF CONEFLOWER
  • Tall upright, rhizomatous perennial
  • Daisy-like flowers on tall, leafy stems
  • Drooping, yellow petals form around a brownish-purple cone

HEIGHT: 125-175 cm  ·  SPREAD: 80-90 cm

Ruellia humilis
WILD PETUNIA
  • Bell-shaped petunia shaped lavender to lilac-blue flowers
  • Blooming period between May-October
  • Long slender olive-green leaves

HEIGHT: 50-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Sagittaria graminea
GRASS LEAF ARROWHEAD
  • Upright, rhizomatous spreader
  • Arrow-shaped, narrow, long, mid-green foliage
  • Grows approximately 60 cm above water level

HEIGHT: 50-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-30 cm

Sagittaria latifolia
ARROWHEAD
  • Upright aquatic perennial
  • Long, narrow, arrow-shaped, mid-green leaves
  • Grows approximately 60 cm above water level

HEIGHT: 30-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100 cm

Salix amygdaloides
PEACH-LEAVED WILLOW
  • Yellowish-green leaves have a pale whitish underside
  • Rough bark is brownish-gray
  • Orange-yellow twigs

HEIGHT: 11-12 m  ·  SPREAD: 8-10 m

Salix bebbiana
BEAKED WILLOW
  • Yellow-green cone-like fruit is attractive to birds
  • Dull green, slightly saw-toothed or wavy, gray or whitish underneath
  • Fast growing and capable of forming dense colonies

HEIGHT: 4-5 m  ·  SPREAD: 9-10 m

Salix candida
SAGE-LEAVED WILLOW
  • Gray, felt-like leaves
  • Large yellow catkins
  • New shoots are white and woolly at first, then to a glossy red-brown

HEIGHT: 175-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-125 cm

Salix cordata
HEARTLEAF WILLOW
  • Yellow catkins are slender and smooth
  • Green leaves are pale and hairy underneath, with finely serrated edges
  • New shoots are white and silky

HEIGHT: 175-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 175-200 cm

Salix discolor
PUSSY WILLOW
  • Soft silky silvery catkins appear before the leaves
  • Medium-green leaves have downy gray-white undersides
  • Upright habit

HEIGHT: 5-6 m  ·  SPREAD: 125-150 cm

Salix eriocephala
HEART-LEAVED WILLOW
  • Catkins appear before leaves
  • Long narrow green leaves with white undersides
  • Stems are tough and flexible

HEIGHT: 3-4 m  ·  SPREAD: 3-4 m

Salix exigua
SANDBAR WILLOW
  • AKA Salix interior
  • Yellowish-green catkins
  • Narrow silvery-gray leaves

HEIGHT: 3-4 m  ·  SPREAD: 5-6 m

Salix lucida
SHINING WILLOW
  • Yellow catkins appear after the leaves
  • Narrow dark green leaves are glossy above, and glossy light green below
  • Plant is called 'shining' because of its smooth, shiny leaves

HEIGHT: 5-6 m  ·  SPREAD: 5-6 m

Salix nigra
BLACK WILLOW
  • Small greenish-yellow catkins in early spring
  • Long, narrow, glossy green leaves turn yellow in the fall
  • Deeply fissured dark brown bark

HEIGHT: 18-20 m  ·  SPREAD: 4-5 m

Salix petiolaris
SLENDER WILLOW
  • AKA Salix gracilis
  • Small, brownish-yellow catkins
  • Long, dark green leaves turn yellow in the fall

HEIGHT: 2-3 m  ·  SPREAD: 2-3 m

Sambucus canadensis
AMERICAN ELDERBERRY
  • Pleasantly fragrant white flowers in a flat-topped cluster
  • Purple-black berries in clusters, August to September, will attract birds
  • Compound pinnate, medium-green leaves turn yellow in the fall

HEIGHT: 250-300 cm  ·  SPREAD: 200-250 cm

Sambucus pubens
SCARLET ELDERBERRY
  • White flowers in a mounded cluster
  • Red berries in clusters, June to July will attract birds
  • Compound, pinnate, medium-green leaves turn yellow in the fall

HEIGHT: 250-300 cm  ·  SPREAD: 200-250 cm

Sanguinaria canadensis
BLOODROOT
  • Rhizomatous, native, woodland perennial
  • Solitary, cup-shaped, white flowers with yellow stamens
  • One of the first flowers to appear

HEIGHT: 10-15 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-25 cm

Sassafras albidum
SASSAFRAS
  • Shrubby when young, maturing to a dense, pyramidal crown
  • Clusters of greenish-yellow flowers
  • Flowers give way to small purple berries on scarlet stems

HEIGHT: 10-15 m  ·  SPREAD: 9-12 m

Saururus cernuus
LIZARD'S TAIL
  • Rhizomatous, marginal, aquatic perennial
  • Naturally found in swamps or slow-moving rivers and ponds
  • Heart-shaped leaves are smooth and wavy on zig-zagged stems

HEIGHT: 50-90 cm

Saxifraga paniculata
ENCRUSTED SAXIFRAGE
  • AKA Saxifraga aizoon
  • Evergreen, alpine species
  • Tall, red stems bear loose clusters of tiny, white flowers

HEIGHT: 10-15 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-30 cm

Schizachyrium scoparium
LITTLE BLUESTEM
  • AKA Andropogon scoparius
  • Slightly arching clump of blue-green leaves
  • Leaves are flame-coloured in the fall and remain showy throughout the winter

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-70 cm

Scirpus acutus
HARD STEM BULRUSH
  • AKA: Schoenoplectus acutus var. occidentalis
  • Scirpus are not grasses, they are perennial sedges
  • Upright cylindrical gray-green stems have 3 to 4 slender sheathed leaves at the base

HEIGHT: 100-175 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-100 cm

Scirpus atrovirens
DARK GREEN BULRUSH
  • Scirpus are not grasses, they are perennial sedges
  • Forms an open upright clump of dark green leaves branching from the main stems
  • Dark green culms, reaching 125 cm, develop clusters of inflorescences

HEIGHT: 90-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 90-125 cm

Scirpus cyperinus
WOOL GRASS
  • Scirpus are not grasses, they are perennial sedges
  • Forms short tufts of grass-like blades
  • Flowers rise above the foliage on narrow upright stems

HEIGHT: 100-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 90-125 cm

Scirpus fluviatilis
RIVER BULRUSH
  • Aka Bolboschoenus fluviatilis
  • Scirpus are not grasses, they are perennial sedges
  • Forms short tufts of grass-like blades

HEIGHT: 30-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-40 cm

Scirpus pungens
COMMON THREE SQUARE
  • AKA: Schoenoplectus pungens, Scirpus americanus
  • Scirpus are not grasses, they are perennial sedges
  • Triangular stems bear few blades up to 25 cm long

HEIGHT: 100-175 cm  ·  SPREAD: 75-125 cm

Scirpus validus
SOFTSTEM BULRUSH
  • AKA: Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani
  • Scirpus are not grasses, they are perennial sedges
  • Dark green spongy stems, up to 2 cm thick, are rounded-edged and triangular in cross-section

HEIGHT: 175-250 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-120 cm

Senecio aureus
GOLDEN RAGWORT
  • AKA Packera aurea
  • Flat-topped clusters of yellow, daisy-like flowers
  • Flowers give way to fluffy, white, seed heads

HEIGHT: 25-30 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-40 cm

Shepherdia canadensis
BUFFALOBERRY
  • Small, yellow, insignificant flowers
  • Yellowish-red berries follow in the summer
  • Silver-green leaves

HEIGHT: 200-250 cm  ·  SPREAD: 200-250 cm

Silphium laciniatum
COMPASS PLANT
  • Clusters of nodding, eastern-facing, sunflower-like, yellow flowers
  • Sturdy, green stems are covered in white hairs
  • Basal, lanceolate leaves are very deeply lobed and 50 cm long

HEIGHT: 200-300 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Silphium perfoliatum
CUP PLANT
  • Bright yellow daisy-like flowers
  • Coarsely-toothed bristly oval green leaves are 20 cm long
  • Leaves are opposite each other and join together at stem to cup water

HEIGHT: 150-250 cm  ·  SPREAD: 75-90 cm

Sisyrinchium angustifolium
BLUE-EYED GRASS
  • AKA Sisyrinchium graminoides
  • Forms a dense mounding clump of green blades
  • Clusters of showy blue flowers are even with the top of the foliage

HEIGHT: 45-50 cm  ·  SPREAD: 10-15 cm

Sisyrinchium montanum
BLUE-EYED GRASS
  • Forms a loose mounding clump of green blades
  • Clusters of showy blue flowers
  • Flower-holding stems extend above the flower clusters

HEIGHT: 30-55 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-40 cm

Smilacina racemosa
FALSE SOLOMON'S SEAL
  • AKA Maianthemum racemosum
  • Clump forming, rhizomatous perennial
  • Unbranched stems have alternate, mid-green leaves

HEIGHT: 70-80 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-50 cm

Solidago caesia
BLUESTEM GOLDENROD
  • Arching wands of golden flower clusters
  • Blue-green stems and long thin green leaves
  • Forms attractive open clumps

HEIGHT: 30-60 cm

Solidago canadensis
CANADIAN GOLDENROD
  • Rhizomatous, upright habit
  • Small, numerous, yellow blooms
  • Lance-shaped, sharply toothed, green foliage

HEIGHT: 150-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 90-100 cm

Solidago flexicaulis
ZIGZAG GOLDENROD
  • Small flowers cluster near the top of the plant
  • Star-like, yellow blooms
  • Erect stems hold softly hairy, coarsely toothed, oval foliage

HEIGHT: 30-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-100 cm

Solidago nemoralis
OLD FIELD GOLDENROD
  • Erect upright perennial in the sunflower family
  • Narrow, downward-arching, bright yellow plumes
  • Grey-Green leaves and stems

HEIGHT: 50-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Solidago rigida
STIFF GOLDENROD
  • AKA Oligoneuron rigidum
  • Tiny, bright yellow, daisy-like, flat-topped flowers
  • Velvety foliage is gray-green in the summer

HEIGHT: 90-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60 cm

Solidago rugosa
WRINKLELEAF GOLDENROD
  • Tiny, bright yellow blooms arch in plume-like panicles
  • Stiff, narrow, toothed foliage is rough-surfaced and wrinkled
  • Clumping perennial

HEIGHT: 60-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100 cm

Sorbus decora
SHOWY MOUNTAINASH
  • Upright, oval to rounded crown with ascending branches
  • Blue-green compound leaves in the summer turn reddish-purple in the fall
  • Flat-topped clusters of small white flowers

HEIGHT: 8-10 m  ·  SPREAD: 6-8 m

Sorghastrum nutans
INDIAN GRASS
  • AKA Sorghastrum avenaceum, Chrysopogon nutans
  • Reddish-bronze downy flower spikes rising well above the foliage appear in July
  • The grass blades are green turning bronze to burnt orange in the fall

HEIGHT: 120-220 cm  ·  SPREAD: 45-60 cm

Sparganium americanum
AMERICAN BUR-REED
  • An emergent aquatic
  • Long, lance-shaped green leaves
  • Unique flowers and seedheads

HEIGHT: 90-125 cm

Sparganium eurycarpum
GIANT BUR-REED
  • AKA Sparganium californicum
  • An emergent aquatic
  • Unique flowers and seedheads

HEIGHT: 90-125 cm

Spartina pectinata
PRAIRIE CORD GRASS
  • Main stems (culms) are round, up to 225 cm
  • Green leaves, alternate, up to 60 cm long, emerge from the lower half of the stems
  • Arching thick blades with prominent midribs have sharp edges

HEIGHT: 175-225 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-120 cm

Spiraea alba
MEADOWSWEET
  • Cone-shaped clusters of tiny white flowers
  • Fruit dries and splits to release seed
  • Narrow toothed green leaves

HEIGHT: 125-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 125-150 cm

Spiraea latifolia
STEEPLEBUSH
  • Bottlebrush-like spikes of tiny, white flowers
  • Brown seed heads persist into the winter
  • Leaves are bright green above, blue-green underneath

HEIGHT: 125-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 125-150 cm

Spiraea tomentosa
HARDHACK
  • Bottlebrush-like spikes of tiny pink flowers
  • Brown seed heads persist into the winter
  • Leaves bright green above, blue-green underneath

HEIGHT: 100-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-125 cm

Sporobolus heterolepis
PRAIRIE DROPSEED
  • An elegant native; fine green leaves and its seed stems emerge directly from the base
  • Pink flowers turn tan coloured in the fall
  • Delicate seedheads stand 50 cm above the rest of the foliage

HEIGHT: 60-100 cm  ·  SPREAD: 45-60 cm

Stylophorum diphyllum
CELANDINE POPPY
  • Isolated populations in Ontario
  • Saucer-shaped poppy-like yellow flowers
  • Nodding densely hairy seed capsules appear shortly after flowering

HEIGHT: 30-45 cm  ·  SPREAD: 25-30 cm

Symphoricarpos albus
SNOWBERRY
  • Panicles of small, pink flowers
  • Clusters of white berries seldom persist into the winter
  • Foliage is bluish-green

HEIGHT: 125-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-125 cm

Symplocarpus foetidus
SKUNK CABBAGE
  • Maroon spathe is open on one side to reveal green-yellow flowers (spadix)
  • Large green leaves unfold as flowers fade
  • Foliage reaches its maximum size by early summer (60cm x 30cm)

HEIGHT: 40-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60 cm

Taxus canadensis
CANADIAN YEW
  • Slow-growing, compact, dense, spreading, flat-topped habit
  • Low maintenance spreader suitable for use as a ground cover
  • Narrow, short-stalked, dark green needles

HEIGHT: 50-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 80-100 cm

Thalictrum pubescens
TALL MEADOWRUE
  • The pinnate leaves have three or more leaflets with rounded lobes
  • White flowers are arranged in large, terminal clusters
  • Naturally found in meadows, open woodlands or along a woodland edge

HEIGHT: 125-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Thelypteris palustris
MARSH FERN
  • AKA Dryopteris thelypteris, Thelypteris thelypteroides
  • Single pale green pinnate feathery fronds
  • Non-clumping form; it spreads by long creeping rhizomes

HEIGHT: 45-70 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-200 cm

Thuja occidentalis
EASTERN WHITE CEDAR
  • Upright, conical to pyramidal, with slightly arching branches
  • Light green foliage grows in flattened sprays
  • Colour fades to a duller bronze-green

HEIGHT: 10-12 m  ·  SPREAD: 3-4 m

Tiarella cordifolia
FOAM FLOWER
  • Rhizomatous perennial vigorously spreads by trailing stolons
  • Heart-shaped to maple-shaped leaves with 3-5 lobes, 10 cm across
  • Leaves may develop reddish variegation along the veins

HEIGHT: 10-15 cm  ·  SPREAD: 40-50 cm

Tilia americana
BASSWOOD
  • Oval to rounded crown with upright growing branches
  • Ovate dark green leaves turn a pale yellow in the fall
  • Fragrant pale yellow flowers

HEIGHT: 20-25 m  ·  SPREAD: 13-15 m

Tradescantia ohiensis
OHIO SPIDERWORT
  • Upright, tufted, clump forming perennial
  • Numerous buds form in a terminal cluster
  • Three petals form a triangular-shaped flower with hairy stamens

HEIGHT: 75-90 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Trillium erectum
RED TRILLIUM
  • Native to woodlands throughout North America
  • Outward-facing, deep red, three-petaled flowers
  • Stalkless , broadly ovate, mid-green leaves

HEIGHT: 15-30 cm  ·  SPREAD: 10-15 cm

Trillium grandiflorum
WHITE TRILLIUM
  • Native to woodlands throughout North America
  • Showiest of all the native trillium
  • Outward-facing, white, three-petaled flowers

HEIGHT: 20-30 cm  ·  SPREAD: 20-30 cm

Tsuga canadensis
EASTERN HEMLOCK
  • Dense, pyramidal growth habit
  • Flat sprays of lacy short dark green needles
  • Needles have two white bands underneath

HEIGHT: 18-21 m  ·  SPREAD: 8-10 m

Typha angustifolia
NARROWLEAF CATTAIL
  • Clumping spreading stands of narrow sword-like leaves
  • Central flower stalks are equal to the height of the leaves
  • Male and female flowers are held separately

HEIGHT: 175-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 200-500 cm

Typha latifolia
BROADLEAF CATTAIL
  • Clumping spreading stands of sword-like leaves
  • Central flower stalks, equal to the height of the leaves, hold male and female flowers
  • Cylindrical flowers turn brown after fertilization

HEIGHT: 125-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 200-500 cm

Ulmus americana
AMERICAN ELM
  • Vase-shaped, broad, rounded crown
  • Insignificant green flowers in early spring become single, oval to rounded, winged seeds
  • Oval to elliptical rough-textured green leaves in the summer

HEIGHT: 18-22 m  ·  SPREAD: 13-20 m

Uvularia grandiflora
LARGE-FLOWERED BELLWORT
  • Clump forming, upright, native wildflower
  • Long, bell-shaped, yellow flowers
  • Flowers have six, slightly twisted petals

HEIGHT: 50-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-45 cm

Vaccinium angustifolium
LOWBUSH BLUEBERRY
  • Clusters of white flowers
  • Small, sweet, dark blue fruit
  • Glossy, blue-green leaves turn purple in the fall

HEIGHT: 50-60 cm  ·  SPREAD: 50-60 cm

Verbena hastata
BLUE VERVAIN
  • Clump forming with a stiff, upright habit
  • Candelabra-like flowers on pencil-like spikes
  • Blooms are purplish-blue

HEIGHT: 125-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-90 cm

Verbena stricta
HOARY VERVAIN
  • Clump forming perennial
  • Gray-green foliage and stems
  • Blue-purple flowers are densely packed on pencil-like stems

HEIGHT: 90-125 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-80 cm

Vernonia noveboracensis
NEW YORK IRONWEED
  • Tall, coarse, upright form
  • Tiny, deep purple, composite blooms
  • Stiff stems hold pointed, lance-shaped leaves

HEIGHT: 125-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-125 cm

Veronicastrum virginicum
CULVER'S ROOT
  • AKA Leptandra virginica, Veronica virginica
  • Large, upright, perennial
  • Tubular, white or pink flowers form dense spikes atop the stems

HEIGHT: 125-175 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-80 cm

Viburnum acerifolium
MAPLELEAF VIBURNUM
  • Tiny, white flowers in long-stalked, flat-topped cymes
  • Medium green maple-like leaves turn reddish-purple to magenta in fall
  • Pea-sized fruit the ripen to bluish-black in late summer

HEIGHT: 150-175 cm  ·  SPREAD: 100-125 cm

Viburnum cassinoides
WITHEROD
  • Flat-topped clusters of creamy-white flowers
  • Green fruit turns pink to red to blue to black in fall persisting after leaf drop
  • Leaves emerge with bronze tones, maturing to a dull dark green

HEIGHT: 125-150 cm  ·  SPREAD: 125-150 cm

Viburnum dentatum
ARROWWOOD
  • Clusters of creamy-white flowers in spring
  • Bluish-black fruit in fall attractive to birds
  • Shiny, dark green leaves turning yellow to reddish-purple in fall

HEIGHT: 175-200 cm  ·  SPREAD: 175-200 cm

Viburnum lentago
NANNYBERRY
  • Flat-topped clusters of creamy-white flowers
  • Bluish-black fruit in the fall is attractive to birds
  • Glossy green leaves turn reddish-purple in the fall

HEIGHT: 5-6 m  ·  SPREAD: 175-200 cm

Viburnum trilobum
HIGHBUSH CRANBERRY
  • Flat-topped clusters of creamy-white flowers
  • Red berries are attractive to birds
  • Textured, three-lobed, green leaves turn reddish-purple in the fall

HEIGHT: 250-300 cm  ·  SPREAD: 250-300 cm

Vitis riparia
FROST GRAPE
  • Drooping panicles of small, five-petaled, yellowish-green flowers
  • Blooms have a sweet, musky fragrance
  • Small green berries age to deep purple

HEIGHT: 10-15 m  ·  SPREAD: 8-10 m

Waldsteinia fragaroides
BARREN STRAWBERRY
  • AKA Geum fragaroides
  • Mat-forming, rhizomatous perennial
  • Dark green to bronze, strawberry-like leaves

HEIGHT: 5-10 cm  ·  SPREAD: 30-40 cm

Woodsia obtusa
CLIFF FERN
  • Feathery, dull green, mounding fronds
  • Leaflets are blunt-lobed
  • Leaflets have hairy undersides when young

HEIGHT: 30-50 cm  ·  SPREAD: 25-40 cm

Woodwardia virginica
VIRGINIA CHAIN FERN
  • AKA Anchistea virginica
  • Deeply cut, leathery, green fronds
  • Thick, black, central stem

HEIGHT: 50-70 cm  ·  SPREAD: 60-90 cm

Zizia aurea
GOLDEN ALEXANDER
  • Branching, erect reddish stems
  • Each tiny flower is composed of five sepals, five petals and five stamens
  • These tiny flowers form a large, flat-topped cluster

HEIGHT: 75-80 cm  ·  SPREAD: 45-60 cm